Reign of the Ptolemies: Egypt After Alexander the Great by Romeo Reyes Summary

Reyes describes the history of the Ptolemaic monarchy of Egypt from the accomplishments of Ptolemy I, to its fall the famous queen, Cleopatra VII.
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Reign of the Ptolemies:

Egypt after Alexander the Great


by Romeo Reyes

In Greek and Macedonian history, a great conqueror marches through lands far from his native Greece in hopes of surmounting them. With his vast army many campaigns were won, one was Egypt. After his death. Ptolemy and his successors would rule the Egyptian land for almost 300 years until Rome's intervention in 30 b.c., their personalities and characteristics variant from each other.

The arrival of Alexander the Great into Egypt, without a battle, in the winter of 332 B.C. marks a significant continuation in pharaonic history, rather than a turning point. Alexander conspired with the Persian satrap Mazaces and achieved a negotiated settlement whereby Mazaces would cede Egypt to Alexander without a struggle in return for his own personal and economical enrichment. Such an arrangement could only have been made with the complicity of other highly placed administrators, many of whom were native Egyptians.1 Alexander realized that it was important to maintain the continued support of the native bureaucracy for seizing control of the country and its resources. Egypt was a theocracy, the pharaoh serving as both king and chief pontiff. As an extension of this royal model, each pharaonic bureaucrat could be both clerk and cleric and was dependent upon the crown for his just)fication of existence. Alexander realized the importance of maintaining this unity of church and state. One might suggest that his alleged coronation according to pharaonic rites at Memphis and his experience at the Temple of Ammon2 at the Oasis of Siwah were motivated by his desire to demonstrate that he was willing to assume the role of pharaoh for the benefit of those whose services he so desperately required. After the Oracle at Ammon, Alexander decided to found a great city in Egypt, laid out the site and traced the streets skillfully. He ordered the city to be called Alexandria. This city was to be built between the marsh and the sea. After the death of Alexander, and after a series of internal strife, Perdiccas as the regent or guardian of Alexander's domain announces the key commands that had been agreed upon by the council summoned in Babylon. As a result, Ptolemy, son of Lagus, assumed de facto control of Egypt, "appointed by the new Macedonian king, Philip Arrhidaeus".3 Although appointed by king Philip, seen as a feeble minded half brother of Alexander, the real power was in the hands of the Macedonian chiefs who served under Alexander, especially in that of Perdiccas.



Ptolemy, son of Lagus, was satrap of Egypt from 323 to 305 b.c. He was one of seven bodyguards protecting Alexander the Great. The former satrap of Egypt, Cleomenes, was demoted to deputy. In the hopes of getting his post back, Cleomenes offered his services to Perdiccas as a secret agent. Ptolemy, aware of this, "had a nice excuse (if he needed one) for eliminating the mole in his entourage"4, thus strengthening his position even more. Upon Alexander's death it was decided that his body should be buried in the temple of his Divine Father in the Oasis of Siwah, a decision made by the Macedonian chiefs in Babylon. Ptolemy saw an opportunity for more prestige if he possessed the body of the great Macedonian hero. Knowing that the body would have to go first to Memphis before Siwah, Ptolemy, intercepting the body at Syria with a powerful escort, 5 took control of the cortege6 and continued to Memphis. Upon reaching Memphis, the cortege preceded no farther towards the Oasis. The body remained at Memphis until it was transferred to Alexandria by Ptolemy's son forty years later. Through a series of calculated, astute maneuvers, Ptolemy ultimately declared himself King of Egypt in 305/304 b.c. thereby founding the Macedonian Greek dynasty whose members where to rule Egypt into the first century b.c. As king, he became known as Ptolemy I Soter ("The Saviour")7 and during his reign did nothing to undo the precedent Alexander had established. As a Greek educated Macedonian, Ptolemy I preferred not to be out of sight of the Mediterranean. Alexandria, rather than Memphis, became his natural center of operations.8 He determined from early on that the city would be a great commercial port. Alexandria, in Ptolemy's eyes, was to be the new home and breeding ground for the best in Greek art, science, and scholarship. Estabilshing a new Museum and Library, "Ptolemy had to bring in Greek intellectuals from outside: there was no local talent: certainly none of the kind he wanted&emdash;on which he could draw."9 Ptolemy prepared his son for succession with the instruction of a tutor, Philetas of Cos. Many other tutors followed Philetas. Under Ptolemy I there appeared a new religious cult, that of Sarapis, which had been regarded as designed by the king to form a link between his Greek and Egyptian subjects.10 Outside the chief centers of the cult, Memphis and Alexandria, Sarapis had sadly little appeal to the Egyptians and Greek settlers. Sarapis was successful as an export type of deity, being the patron god of the Ptolemaic empire. As the Ptolemaic empire grew over the Mediterranean, people looked for assurance of a future life and for a redemptive religion. They saw salvation in the Cult of Sarapis. "During the coarse of the third century b.c. Ptolemy continued to rely upon the good will of native offficials interacting with the vast illiterate agrarian population whose continued conformity to established social conditions ensured the stability of the realm."11 Such apparent domestic tranquillity enabled Ptolemy II Philadelphus (deified with his sister/wife as "the Fraternal Gods") and his son and successor, Ptolemy III Euergetes I, to concentrate their attentions and the resources of the nation on the acquisition of overseas possessions. Ptolemy I died, age eighty-four, in 282 b.c. The only one of all the great Macedonian chiefs to die a natural death in his bed.

The second Ptolemy, a young man of twenty-five who became sole king of Egypt in 282 or 283 b.c. is known in history as Ptolemy II Philadelphus. This surname he never bore in his lifetime. He was simply known as "Ptolemy the son of Ptolemy."12 Ptolemy II., quite different from Ptolemy the father, was the magnificent "voluptuary"13 with intellectual and artistic interests succeeding the man of war. Highly influenced by his tutors, especially Strato, he had an interest in zoology and geography, quickened by the attention devoted to scientific studies by Aristotle and his disciples.14 He was of fair complexion, not very athletic, and of soft fiber compared to his father, the tough old Macedonian marshal. Often during his reign Egypt was at war, but the wars were carried on by Ptolemy lI's generals and admirals. Thus, as the character of the ruling class deteriorated, the strength and prosperity of the kingdom declined. His marriage to his sister, Arsinoe II, added to his kingdom the domains which she had earlier acquired independently. The marriage of a full brother and sister was before heard of in the Greek world, although quite common amongst the Egyptian natives, and according to the practice of the Pharaohs. In Alexandria, "when Ptolemy II floated the time-honored Egyptian custom of royal incest there was a certain amount of shock, but surprisingly soon people got use to the idea."15 Arsinoe II assumed the surname of Philadelphus ("loving-her-brother"). She was mentally strong. It seemed to have been an understood thing in the Greek world the Egyptian court in foreign policy was drawn by the firm hand of Arsinoe Philadelphus. It was under her drastic regime that inconvenient members of the royal family were cleared away.16 Ptolemy's brother Argaeus was put to death on the charge of conspiring against him. Another half brother was put to death, accused of stirring up trouble in Cyprus. During the reign of Ptolemy II the Nile River to the Red Sea was again made operational, bringing elephants to Egypt. Camels were also imported into Egypt, and today it "seems as Egyptian as the Sphinx or the Pyramids."17 In 245 b.c. Ptolemy II died at the age of sixty-three. Egypt ceased to be "for the Egyptians", taking its shape at the conclusion of Soter and Philadelphus. By this time, the city of Alexandria with its territory, eighty-six years after its foundation, was not considered as being in Egypt. It was a Greek city adjacent to Egypt.

Ptolemy III Euergetes I (the Benefactor) took over the government two years before his father's death in 247. His was something over thirty. Labeled the "Benefactor", he was noted for his charitable causes, the arts and sciences included. The Ptolemies collected a vast library of books, which eventually contained about half a million rolls. In order to enrich the collection, Ptolemy III. issued an order that all travelers coming into Alexandria must deposit any books contained in their baggage, later to be copied. In exchange, the owner receiving an official certified copy, the library keeping the originals He "ordered all books unloaded on the Alexandria docks to be seized and copied."18 "By a kind of oscillation in heredity, just as the vigorous founder of the dynasty had been succeeded by the soft dilettante,19 the dilettante was succeeded in turn by a man in whom the warlike Macedonian stock showed itself still persistent despite the influence of a luxurious court and the climate of Egypt,"20 In Ptolemy III. we see less the son of Philadelphus and more the grandson of Soter, marching at the head of his army to invade Northern Syria. Another expedition which Ptolemy III. Ied into Asia was the greatest military triumph ever achieved by the house of Ptolemy. Unfortunately no detailed history of it has come down to us, just a combined summary of four accounts.21 During the reign of Ptolemy III. a bronze coinage was introduced. A fall in population and a shrinkage of overseas trade had brought about a shortage of silver. The silver currency would be completely debased in the future. When we look at the interior of Egypt during the reign of Ptolemy III. we can see the glory of the Alexandrine Museum as a chief center of Hellenistic culture undiminished. Eratosthenes of Cyrene became Librarian, a man of immense learning, literary and scientific, especially in the fields of Geography and Chronology. He had.charge of the boy Ptolemy, the heir to the throne Ptolemy lilt died in 221 b.c., a little over sixty7 leaving a powerful Egyptian Empire to his son.

Within the same time of each other the three great Macedonian kingdoms came all into the hands of young men. Philip V. was seventeen when he succeeded the kingdom of Macedonia in 220 b.c.. Antiochus lilt succeeded the Seleucid realm in 223 b.c.22, age eighteen. The fourth king of Egypt was known as Ptolemy IV. Philopator (Father- loving God), succeeding to the Egyptian throne in 221 b.c. From the various characters and ambitions of these three young men, a new distribution of power in the Mediterranean could not fail to result. With Ptolemy IV.'s reign a catastrophic decline set in. Described in a priestly inscription as;



"the youthful Horace, the strong one, whom his father caused to be manifested as king, Lord of the asp-crowns, whose strength great, whose heart is pious towards the gods, who is protector of men, superior to his foes, who maketh Egypt happy, who giveth radiance to the temples, who firmly establishes the laws which have been proclaimed by Thoth the Great-Great Lord of the Thirty Years' Feast, even as Ptah the Great, A King like the Sun, King of Upper and Lower Countries, offspring of the Benefactor Gods, one whom Ptah has approved, to whom the Sun has given victory, The living image of "the youthful Horus, the strong one, whom his father caused to Amen, King Ptolemy live forever, beloved of Isis"23



was in reality a weak and contemptible debauchee,24 completely in the hands of his unscrupulous minister Sosibius. Absorption in degrading pleasures led to neglect of both army and navy, that when Antiochus, King of Syria, attacked the Syrian possessions of Egypt there was no force in the country capable of withstanding him. He was force to employ native Egyptians as soldiers. These soldiers, receiving their orders through interpreters, won a decisive victory at the Battie of Raphia in 216 b.c.25 Ptolemy IV's victory was accompanied by political revolt at home. Although a link cannot be connected, most who studied these events agree about their causal relationship. The revolt resulted in the secession of Upper Egypt and the establishment of a collateral dynasty of native Egyptians as rulers. The loss of Upper Egypt deprived Ptolemy IV. of a substantial portion of his revenue, along with maintaining an army of mercenaries, he had to cutback on overseas trade, which in turn exacerbated an already unfortunate economic situation. Love of ease, wine, lasciviousness, literary dilettantism, has so swallowed up in this young degenerate every natural affection that he did have his uncle, brother and mother killed, at the suggestion of Sosibius. They were seen as uncomfortable agitations in his life. He married his sister Arsinoe, following the precedent set by his grandfather, Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, in adopting this Pharaonic practice. During the reign of Ptolemy IV. silver was completely abandoned as Egypt's standard currency, bronze was still used. Ptolemy IV. died in Alexandria in 204 b.c. His death was kept a secret by Sosibius, who continued to discharge orders for his own ends, "perpetuating the fiction that Ptolemy IV. Philopator was only indisposed."26

After the death of Ptolemy IV. his wife Arsinoe was the natural guardian and regent of the infant king Ptolemy V.. Arsinoe's life, immured in the palace, was one of continuous humiliation and misery. Arsinoe gave birth to Ptolemy V. Epiphanes (God Manifest) on October 9, 209.27 Within a few weeks he was proclaimed joint king with his father. Upon the death of her husband, she became dangerous. Before Ptolemy IV.'s death was divulged, Sosibius and Agathocles28 had her murdered in the secrecy of the palace. It may have been towards the end of 203 b.c. when Sosibius and Agathocles announced to the world that Ptolemy IV. and Arsinoe had departed to heaven. The history of Ptolemaic Egypt during this century involved internal plots punctuated with foreign intervention. The other Macedonian kings took advantage of the early years of the child Ptolemy V., one being the seizing of Coele-Syria by Antiochus III. The regency of Ptolemy V. passed from one hand to another, along with the Egyptian regime. Only twelve years of age, Young Ptolemy V. was crowned with the surname Epiphanes in Alexandria. "It was a new bid, of a dramatic kind, to secure the loyalty of the Egyptians to the foreign rule."29 Ptolemy V. married Cleopatra, daughter of Antiochus of the Seleucid realm. From this moment on we see the name "Cleopatra" branded into Egyptian history. He was the first of the kings of the house of Ptolemy to be enthroned as pharaoh at Memphis. Ptolemy was a young man "whose leading passion was openair sports, hunting, and athletic exercises - a genuine Macedonian,"30 certainly more vigorous than his father. The young king was kept out of war, not that he was like his father the soft voluptuary, it was the policy of his regent Polycrates to handle the military affairs. Ptolemy V. Epiphanes died in 181 b.c. twenty-eight years of age, rumors of poisoning.

For the second time within twenty-one years the king of Egypt was a child. Ptolemy VI. Philometor (Mother-Loving God). was only six years old at his father's death. Assuming the role of regent was the queen-mother Cleopatra. Fortunately for Egypt, Cleopatra remembered "rather that she was wife of Ptolemy and queen of Egypt, than that she was the daughter of Antiochus "The Great" of the Seleucus Realm".31 Dying prematurely in 176 b.c. Cleopatra left the boy-king, who was fifteen, in the hands of Eulaeus and Lenaeus.32 He was sixteen when he married his sister Cleopatra II., who was younger. Atiochus Epiphanes of the Seleucid throne invaded Egypt33. A feat that has not been accomplished since Alexander the Great! During the occupation of Memphis by Antiochus, a revolution had taken place in Alexandria, placing the younger brother of Ptolemy VI. Philometor, a boy of fifteen, to the throne. As king he assumed the name Ptolemy. Presently he was officially distinguished as "Ptolemy the Brother". Through Roman intervention, Ptolemy VI. returned to the throne at Memphis, The double reign of Egypt lasted five years with unrest. The character of Ptolemy VI. "was the best and most attractive exhibited by any king of the house",34 marked out by gentleness and humanity. Ptolemy VI. constantly quarreled with his brother until his death in 145 b.c. in the Coel-Syria campaign.

Upon the death of his brother, Ptolemy the brother returned from Cyrene35, establishing himself on the throne without any conflict in 145 b.c..36 He assumed the name Euergetes associated with his popular ancestor. Ptolemy VIII. Euergetes II. married Cleopatra II., the widow of her older brother, becoming her younger brother's wife. She had a child from the previous marriage, Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator, later killed by his uncle, the present king. The new king was described by ancient literary sources "as a monster, disgusting in appearance and savage in his vindictiveness"37, which got him the name "Physcon";



Everything wrong with the Ptolemies is summed up in the gross person of Physcon: The Unswerving pursuit of sensual gratification (through food, drink, sex, or power), unhindered by any moral restraints, guilt, or fear of retribution; the acts of wanton indeed sadistic, cruelty against his subjects.38



Physcon also killed his twelve year old son, the last threat to his dynasty. His reign lasted fifty years. Several attempts to dethrone Physcon were made, but all failed. A corrupt bureaucracy was hard to discourage. This enabled Physcon to live out the rest of his self indulgent life in peace. Physcon seduced and married his young niece Cleopatra lilt This infuriated Cleopatra II., his first wife.

Cleopatra lilt had borne Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II, known as Lathyros, and Ptolemy X Alexander I.. She wanted Alexander to run the country as king, "but the Alexandrians would have none of him".39 Lathyros was brought back from Cyprus, where he was acting as governor, to take the throne. In 107 b.c. Cleopatra III drove her son out of Egypt and replaced him with his younger brother Ptolemy X Alexander 1. She accused Lathyros of trying to murder her, angering the Alexandrian mob. In 89 b.c. Ptolemy X. Alexander was becoming exceedingly unpopular in Alexandria. Like his father, he was monstrously fat. The army turned against him. He fled to Syria and raised a new force of mercenaries and re-entered Alexandria. In 103 b.c. Cleopatra III, tired of Ptolemy Alexander, drove him out of Alexandria. He eventually came back to murder her. To pay his newly formed troops he sold the gold coffin of Alexander the Great. The people of Alexander expelled him once again in 87 b.c.. Before Ptolemy X. Alexander lost his life in a naval battle off Cyprus. he "willed his kingdom to Rome" in 87 b.c.40 Rome, knowing that the will existed, was in no hurry to claim Egypt, witnessing the internal strife. Lathyros is brought back and given the job of trying to reunite the Ptolemaic Empire. The Ptolemies owed their continued survival more to political rivalries in Rome than to any innate gifts of diplomacy or statesmanship.41 Lathyros married the daughter of his brother, Ptolemy X. Alexander I. She also is the daughter of his own daughter. Although marriage of grandfather and granddaughter was quite regular in Persia,42 this form of incest has never been adopted by the Hellenistic dynasties. Ptolemy IX. Soter II. "Lathyros" died in 80 b.c., about sixty years old, leaving no heirs to the throne.43 The only legitimate male of the House of Ptolemy, was his nephew, son of Ptolemy X. Alexander I.44

The new heir to the throne, Ptolemy XI. Alexander II., raised a Hellenistic prince, became a puppet for Sulla, the future pro-consul and dictator of Rome. By 80 b. c. Sulla was master and dictator of the Roman World.45 Rome, seeing the opportunity to place a protege of Sulla on the Egyptian throne, sent Ptolemy XI. To Alexandria. There he would not only take the crown of Egypt, but also marry his middle aged mother, the reigning queen.

Queen Cleopatra Berenice was left by her father's death (Lathyros) sole sovereign in Egypt, "a woman now well on in iife".46 Accustomed to twenty years of power, she was not likely to give up her reign to a boy king. Ptolemy XI. grew intolerable within three weeks of the marriage, taking the course of having Berenice assassinated. The Alexandrines were exceedingly angry at having their queen away from them in this way. So angry were they, "they dragged the young Ptolemy then and there to the Great Gymnasium and killed him,"47 Iynched by the furious city mob.48 There were no more descendants of Ptolemy, except Selena and the Seleucid princes who had Ptolemaic blood.

The two illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX. Soter II. were under the care of Syria. One became governor of Cyprus, the eldest boy was pronounced King of Egypt in 80 b.c. as "Theo Philopator Philodelphus Neos Dionysos", dropping his Ptolemaic nomenclature altogether.49 His subjects referred to him as the Flute Player (Auletes). Only in the history books do we label him as Ptolemy XII. Auletes. Ptolemy XII is most famous, apart from the reputation of debauchery second only to that of Physcon,50 for fathering a daughter later to be known as Cleopatra VII., the most famous of the Ptolemies. Ptolemy XII., realizing the power of Rome, in 59 b.c., gave a heavy bribe to Julius Caesar in an attempt to secure his throne, receiving in return the official title of "friend and ally" of Rome.51 This did not endear him to the Alexandrians. When the Romans annexed the Island of Cyprus, the Alexandrians deposed Ptolemy XII., who did not lift a finger to save his brother,52 bringing his older sister, Cleopatra Vl. and Berenice IV. to power. During the course of the last few Ptolemaic reigns, the gap between the rich and poor widen. The intrusion of Rome made matters worse.53 After the death of Cleopatra Vl., Ptolemy XII., upon payment with another bribe, was reinstated as king. Ptolemy XII. upon his return executed Berenice IV. Despite his spend thrift ways and dissolute character, he held on to the throne until his death.

On the death of Ptolemy XII in 51 b.c. his eldest surviving daughter, Cleopatra VII., began her reign as queen of Egypt at the age of seventeen. According to the will of her father, the elder of her two brothers, Ptolemy XIII., was associated with her as king. In Cleopatra VII. the dynasty founded by the shrewd Macedonian marshal in Egypt, nearly three hundred years before, was destined to come to an end.54 The dignity of the royal house had never been brought so low - the king a servant of the Romans, Egypt almost a Roman Province. Cleopatra VII. had witnessed between the years of 60 and 52 b.c. the ever growing influence of Rome. She understood how Ptolemaic money could buy Roman influence.(Ptolemy XII.) She witnessed firsthand the rule of a woman over Egypt.(Berenice IV.) The last of a whole series of Cleopatras, Berenices, Arsinoes, she shows a family resemblance to those other queens and princesses of Macedonian blood - the same masculine purpose, passion for power, ruthlessness in killing.55 If Cleopatra's Macedonian blood gave her masculine energy and hard cruelty, the blood of her Greek Grandmother may have given her the physical seductiveness which fired men's blood.56 Age twenty-one, Cleopatra fled from the city, accused of wishing to oust her brother from the throne. She gathered up an army and was marching toward Egypt. Barring her way to the city near Pelusium was the palace-cabal57 in charge of the younger boy king. Julius Caesar brought about a reconciliation between Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII., Egypt having joint sovereign once again. Ptolemy XIII. drowned in the Nile during a battle in the Alexandrian war. Cleopatra allegedly bore Caesar a son, Caesarion.58 Upon his death Cleopatra returned to Egypt. In 41 b.c. she joumeyed to Tarsus to meet Marc Antony, to whom she bore twins.59 The mutual drive for universal rule set them against the forces of Octavian,60 who defeated them. Cleopatra and Antony committed suicide in 30 b.c.

As Alexander the Great marched into Egypt, he took control of the government by befriending the native bureaucracy, setting up the great city Alexandria. For the Greeks of Egypt, Alexander had been a god from the beginning, the kings and queens soon came to be gods and goddesses. Upon his death Ptolemy of Lagos assumes the satrapy. The first three Ptolemies were hard-headed administrators and businessmen. There can be no doubt that the Ptolemaic rule at first brought Egypt a great increase and wealth and prosperity.61 They built the Museum and Library, bringing Greek intellectuals from the outside. In this early age we also see the collection of books for the library. Ptolemy II. would initiate the act of incestuous marriage to be followed by future Ptolemies. For the years to follow, the House of Ptolemy would experience a wide variety in leadership capabilities. Ptolemy IV. was a weak minded immoralist, while his son Ptolemy V. was athletic, strong, and committed to Egypt. Ptolemy Vl. was the most humane of all the kings, sharing a joint reign in Egypt with his brother, "Ptolemy the brother" who ruled in Memphis. This brother, later to be known as Ptolemy VIII., "Physcon", murdered his nephew considered Ptolemy Vll by historians. Physcon had the longest recorded reign of any Ptolemaic king. After the Alexandrians Iynched Ptolemy Xl, legitimate descendants of the for throne ended. The eldest of two illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX., supported by the Alexandrians, stepped in as king. Now known as Ptolemy Xll. is described as a poor leader. His one claim to fame was fathering the future great Cleopatra Vll. Today Cleopatra emerges from behind history as an ambitious woman. Historical record reveals that by the time of her involvement with Julius Caesar in 48 b.c. there were two virtually independents states in the Mediterranean world, Egypt and Rome, and there were two headstrong rulers seeking absolute power, Julius Caesar and Cleopatra Vll.. After Caesar's death Cleopatra and Marc Antony battle Octavian of Rome at Actium, pitting the last two independent states against one another. This battle, the last naval battle of Antiquity, changed the destiny of the Western world.62 The suicides of, Cleopatra and Marc Antony closed the chapter of Egypt's Ptlomaic History.



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End Notes

1 Cleopatra's Egypt, Age of the Ptolemies p. 13
2 many accounts were written, during this experience he received three responses; 1 ) he was the son of a god, 2) he will be given rule of the world, 3) his father's murderers have been punished.
3 House of Ptolemy, p. 18
4 Alexander to Actium, p. 14
5 ibid., p. 19
6 group accompanying a person, i.e. funeral procession.
7 Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest, p. 56 Each Ptolemy was deified with a cult title
8 Alexander to Actium, p. 84
9 ibid. p.85
10 Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest, p. 38 a new god, Sarapis is a Hellinized form of the Egyptian Osorapis.
11 Cleopatra's Egypt, Age of the Ptolemies p. 14
12 House of Ptolemy, p. 56
13 person of luxurious living and sensual pleasures
14 Strato being one of the chief representatives of the school of Aristotle
15 Alexander to Actium, p. 88
16 House of Ptolemy, p 61
17 Alexander to Actium, p. 367
18 ibid., p 89
19 amateur
20 House of Ptolemy, p.190
21 1 ) inscription by an officer named Adulis, 2) Book of Daniel, 3)commentary of Daniel written by Saint Jerome, 4) Justin's account
22 Antiochus III. inherited his Seleucid Kingdom in a state of ruin and disintegration.
23 Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest, p.57
24 sensualist, immoralist
25 Cleopatra's Egypt; Age of the Ptolemies, p. 16
26 ibid., p. 16
27 Date is fixed by Rosetta Stone, (hieroglyphic script, discovered At Rosetta by the French in 1799)
28 Agathocles was another person, besides Sosibius, to have a great influence on Ptolemy IV. (both were scoundrels)
29 House of Ptolemy, p 260
30 House of Ptolemy, p. 266
31 ibid. p. 282
32 a eunuch and a Syrian ex-slave, both rising up the ranks
33 Alexander to Actium, p. 429-430
34 House of Ptolemy, p. 288
35 He was piaced there by Philometor
36 House of Ptolemy, P. 307
37 ibid p. 307
38 Alexander to Actium, p 538
39 ibid. p. 549
40 Alexander to Actium, p 553
41 ibid. p. 554
42 Berenice was from Lycia
43 House of Ptolemy, p 341
44 ibid p 333-339
45 House of Ptolemy, p. 342
46 ibid. p. 342
47 ibid., p. 342
48 Alexander to Actium, p. 554
49 ibid. p. 554
50 Alexander to Actium, p 554
51 Cleopatra's Egypt, p. 18
52 House of Ptolemy, p. 352 brother was Governor of Cyprus
53 Alexander to Actium, p. 555
54 House of Ptolemy, p. 359
55 ibid., p. 360
56 ibid., p. 360, her mother, mistress of Ptolemy Xll, was likely to have been of Greek blood.
57 Group of person joined in secret - Ponthius, Theodotus, and Achillas
58 Cleopatra's Egypt, Age of the Ptolemies, p. 19
59 Alexander to Actium, p. 673
60 the future Augustus, ruler of Rome
61 Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest, p. 55
62 Cleopatra's Egypt, Age of the Ptolemies, p 20


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Bibliography

Bell, H. Idris. Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest. West Port. Connecticut: Greenwood Press Publishers, 1977.

Bevan, Edwyn. House of Ptolemv A History of Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dvnastv. Chicago: Argonaut, Inc., Publishers, 1968.

Borza, Eugene. The Impact of Alexander the Great. Illinois: The Dryden Press, 1974.

Green, Peter. Alexander to Actium. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Thompson, Dorothy. Memphis under the Ptolemies. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Spaniel, Donald and Mary McKercher. Cleopatra's Egypt: Age of the Ptolemies. New York: The Brooklyn Museum, 1989.



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